KUNG IKAW AY NA-ARESTO NA, ITO ANG IYONG MGA KARAPATAN:

* Manatiling tikom ang bibig, at asistihan ng abogado na may kakayanan na iyong pinili kapag ikaw ay isinalang na sa interrogation.

* Hindi isailalim sa torture, manhandling, intimidation, solitary confinement, incommunicado detention, panloloko, o pangako ng gantimpala o kaluwagan sa anumang paraan (droga, hypnosis, atbp.) na maaring makapanghina ng loob o malayang pag-iisip mo.

* Bigyan ng access sa daglian at sapat na tulong medikal.

* Iharap sa inquest sa lalong madaling panahon at hindi lalagpas sa:
– 12 oras matapos kang ma-aresto dahil sa paglabag sa batas na may parusang hindi mabigat (light offense);
– 18 oras matapos kang ma-aresto dahil sa paglabag sa batas na may parusang medyo mabigat (less grave offense);
– 36 oras matapos kang ma-aresto dahil sa paglabag sa batas na may parusang mabigat (grave offense).

Bago magsimula at pagkatapos ng interogasyon, ito ang iyong mga karapatan:

* Ipaalam sa iyo na may karapatan kang humiling na sumailalim sa physical examination ng isang mahusay na doktor na iyong pinili.

* Kung hindi mo kayang magbayad sa serbisyo ng isang doktor, bigyan ng access sa isang mahusay at walang kinikilingang doktor na gagampan sa physical examination mo (mas mainam na babae ang doktor kung ikaw ay isang babae).

Sa isang inquest proceeding na isasagawa ng isang civilian prosecutor, dapat suriin kung ligal o hindi ang iyong pagka-aresto. Ang prosecutor, maaring:

(a) Mag-utos na palayain ka (kahit mayroon o wala pang full-blown investigation na naisagawa);

(b) Ipagtibay na ligal ang iyong pagka-aresto at ihanda ang kaukulang complaint o impormasyon na isasampa sa trial court. Madalas na tinatanong ng prosecutor ang na-aresto kung nais niyang magkaroon ng preliminary investigation, at kaugnay nito, kung siya ay pipirma ng waiver o pagpapaubaya ng kanyang mga karapatan. Huwag pumirma sa waiver nang hindi batid o nasabihan ng posibleng epekto o kahihinatnan nito. Kapag pumirma sa waiver — at ito ang madalas nangyayari — maaring mananatili ka sa detention center, habang naghihintay ng preliminary investigation. Kapag pumirma sa waiver, maaring mangahulugan din na ipinapaubaya mo na rin ang karapatan mong magsampa ng kaso laban sa mga umaresto sa iyo.

Isang inquest proceeding ang dapat isagawa ng isang sibilyan na prosecutor upang masuri kung ligal ang naganap na pagka-aresto sa iyo.

Kapag nagpasya ang prosecutor na iligal o labag sa batas ang pagka-aresto sa iyo, dapat niyang irekomenda sa City o Provincial Prosecutor na palayain ka. Gayunman, ang pagpapalaya sa iyo ay maaring idaan sa isang regular na preliminary investigation.

Kapag napagtibay ng prosecutor na legal ang iyong pagka-aresto, tatanungin ka niya kung nais mong sumailalim sa isang preliminary investigation. Kapag sumang-ayon ka, tatanungin ka niya kung sang-ayong kang pumirma ng waiver ayon sa Article 125 ng Revised Penal Code, at sa tulong ng isang abogado, o kung walang abogado, ng isang responsableng tao na iyong pinili. Ang pagpirma mo ng waiver ay nangangahulugan din na sumasang-ayon ka na manatili sa kulungan habang isinasagawa ang iyong preliminary investigation.

Kung ayaw mong dumaan sa preliminary investigation o tumutol na pumirma ng waiver, isasagawa ng prosecutor ang inquest sa pamamagitan ng pagsuri ng mga sworn statement/affidavit ng complainant at witnesses, at ng iba pang ebidensiyang isinumite ng complainant. Kung sa pagpapasya ng prosecutor ay may probable cause laban sa iyo, ihahanda niya ang karampatang complaint o impormasyon laban sa iyo at i-rerekomenda niya sa City o Provincial Prosecutor na isumite ang kaso sa korte.

Masasabing may probable cause kung batay sa mga ebidensiyang isinumite sa inquest prosecutor ay kapani-paniwalang may krimeng naganap at ikaw ay posibleng may kinalaman o kasalanan dito.
Kung kasapi ng pulisya at military ang nagtatanong at nag-iimbestiga sa iyo, ang mga karapatan mo ay:

– Manatiling tikom ang bibig.

– Magkaroon ng mahusay at walang kinikilingang abogado, at mas mainam pa, na ikaw mismo ang pumili.

– Bigyan ng abogado, kung hindi mo kayang kumuha ng sarili mong abogado.

– Humiling na sumailalim ka sa physical examination ng isang mahusay at independent na doktor na iyong pinili, at kung hindi mo kayang magbayad ng doktor, bigyan ng isang mahusay at independent na doktor na mgasasagawa ng physical examination sa iyo. (mas mainam na babae ang doktor kung ikaw ay isang babae); at

– Ipaalam sa iyo na ito ang mga karapatan mo, at anuman ang iyong maging pahayag ay maaring magamit laban sa iyo sa korte.

Sa paglilitis ng krimen o criminal prosecutions, it ang mga karapatan mo:

– Huwag pilitin na tumestigo laban sa sarili mo.

– Manatiling tikom ang bibig at magkaroon ng abogado.

– Malaman kung ano ang uri at dahilan ng mga akusasyon laban sa iyo.

– Magkaroon ng mabilis, bukas, at patas na paglilitis.

– Magsampa ng apela kung ikaw ay ma-convict.

– Ituring na inosente hangga’t hindi napapatunayang nagkasala.

– Humarap at lumahok ka ayt iyong abogado sa pagdinig ng mga akusasyon.

– Matulungan ng mga proseso ng korte upang sapilitang lumahok ang mga witness at mailabas ang mga ebidensiya para maipagtanggol mo ang iyong sarirli,

– Personal na makita at ma-cross-examine ang mga witness laban sa iyo.

Kapag ikaw ay iniharap na sa hukom o judge, magsampa ng formal complaint kung ikaw ay pinagkaitan ng abogado, sapilitang pina-amin, pinagbuhatan ng kamay, tinorture, o tinakot.

Mapalaya sa bisa ng makatwirang halaga ng piyansa, maliban lang kung ikaw ay nahaharap sa kasong may parusang kamatayan, reclusion perpetua o panghabangbuhay na pagkakakulong, at matibay ang ebidensiya na ikaw ay guilty.

– Kahit man lumaya ka matapos magbayad ng piyansa, maari mo pa ring kwestiyunin kung ligal ang naging pag-aresto sa iyo, o kung ligal ang warrant of arrest laban sa iyo, basta naipahayag mo ang iyong mga pagtutol na ito bago ang iyong arraignment o ang pagbasa ng kaso sa korte laban sa iyo.

Lahat ng mga officer at kasapi nila sa pulisya at militar na may tungkulin sa pag-aresto, pagkulong, pag-imbita, at pag-imbestiga ng mga suspek sa anumang krimen ay dapat na sumunod sa mga itinakdang intiakdang procedures, guidelines, at duties, nila, mula sa iyong pagka-aresto at habang inuusig sa detention center. Itinakda ng Korte Suprema ang mga patakarang ito sa kasong People v. Mahinay (G.R. No. 122485, 1 February 1999).

– Dapat ipaalam sa iyo sa wika na batid at naiintindihan mo ang dahilan ng iyong pagka-aresto. Dapat ipakita sa iyo ang iyong warrant of arrest. Lahat ng abiso, impormasyon, at pahayag nila sa iyo ay dapat nasa wika na batid at naiintidihan mo.

– Dapat mabigyan ka ng warning na may karapatan kang maging tikom ang bibig, at anumang sabihin mo ay maaring magamit na ebidensiya laban sa iyo.

– Dapat ipaalam sa iyo na may karapatan kang matulungan sa lahat ng pagkakataon ng mahusay at walang kinikilingan na abogado na ikaw mismo ang pumili.

– Dapat ipaalam sa iyo na kung wala kang abogado o hindi mo kayang magbayad ng abogado, bibigyan ka ng abogado; maari ring kumuha ng abogado para sa iyo ang korte, kung nais mo o ng iyong kinatawan na magsumite ng petisyon para rito.

– Kahit man meron o wala kang abogado, dapat ipaalam sa iyo na walang anumang imbestigasyon na maaring maganap sa loob ng detention center, liban na lang kung kasama mo ang iyong abogado o pumirma ka na ng waiver ng iyong mga karapatan.

– Dapat ipaalam sa iyo na may karapatan ka, sa lahat ng pagkakataon, na makausap sa pinakamabilis na paraan (telepono, text, radyo, sulat, o messenger) ang iyong abogado, miyembro ng pamilya, doktor, pari o ministro na pinili mo o ng iyong pamilya; dapat ipaalam sa iyo na may karapatan kang tumanggap ng bisita at makausap ang anumang accredited na national o international non-government organizations.

– Dapat ipaalam sa iyo na may karapatan kang ipaubaya o i-waive ang anumang karapatan mo sa boluntaryo, malinaw, at matalinong paraan, at naiintindihan mo ang maaring kahinatnan o epekto ng iyong waiver.

– Dapat ipaalam sa iyo na kung pipirma ka ng waiver para magkaroon ng abogado, ito ay dapat maisulat sa harap ng iyong abogado; kung hindi, dapat ipaalam sa iyo na walang bisa o void ang waiver mo, kahit na ipilit mo pa at nagdesisyon kang magbigay ng statement o pahayag.

– Dapat ipaalam sa iyo na maari kang magdesisyon sa anumang paraan at sa anumang yugto ng proseso na ayaw mo nang matanong pa, at sa puntong ito ay dapat matigil ang interrogation kung ito ay nagaganap na, o dapat wala nang interrogation na maganap pa.

– Dapat ipaalam sa iyo sa kabila ng iyong initial waiver na manatiling tikom ang bibig, magkaroon ng abogado, o anupamang karapatan mo, maari mo pa ring gamitin ang mga karapatang ito sa anumang yugto ng proseso, kahit na nagbigay ka na ng ilang statement o pahayag.

– Dapat ipaalam sa iyo na anumang statement o ebidensiya na nakuha sa paraang labag sa mga procedures o guidelines na ito — na nagpapatibay o tumatanggi sa mga paratang sa iyo — ay hindi katanggap-tanggap na ebidensiya sa korte.

(a) Karaniwang gawi ng mga investigating officer ang pagbigay sa taong na-aresto ng isang confession na nakasulat na at kailangan na lang pirmahan. May pagkakataon na ang suspek ay tinatakot na pumirma na kahit hindi pa nito nababasa ang nakasulat sa confession. At dahil bawal na sa ilalim ng Konstitusyon ang mga confession na nakuha sa suspek na walang abogadong kasama, maaaring may abogado nang isinasama ang mga imbestigador sa kanilang pag-alok ng confession sa mga suspek. Manatiling buo ang loob pero magalang. Manindigan na gusto mong kumuha ng sariling abogado at sabihan ang imbestigador na nais mong makita ang iyong abogado. Dahil batid na nila na alam mo ang iyong mga karapatan, mas maiiwasan na ikaw ay maharap sa sakuna o sapilitiang paaminin sa anumang akusasyon sa iyo, habang nakakulong.

(b) Kung hindi ipinaalam sa iyo na may karapatan kang manahimik, magkaroon at pumili ng mahusay at walang kinikilingang abogado, ang arresting officer o empleyado o investigating officer na hindi nagpabatid sa iyo ng mga karapatang ito, maari siyang maparusahan ng multa o pagkakulong o ng parehong parusa .

(k) Kung hindi ipinaalam sa iyo na maari kang magkaroon at pumili ng abogado na mahusay at walang kinikilingan ng sinumang arresting officer, emploeyado or investihgating officer, maari siyang maparusahan ng multa o pagkakulong o ng parehong parusa.

(d) Sinuman ang magpipigil o magbabawal sa iyong abogado, miyembro ng pamilya, doktor, o ministro ng simbahan na bumisita at makipag-usap sa iyo, eksaminin at gamutin ka, o bigyan ka ng spiritual service, anumang oras sa araw, o kung may dagling pangangailangan, anumang oras sa gabi, ay maaring maharap sa parusang multa at pagkakulong.

IF YOU HAVE ALREADY BEEN ARRESTED, THESE ARE YOUR RIGHTS:

* To remain silent and to be assisted by a competent lawyer of your choice when questioned or interrogated.
* Not to be subjected to torture, manhandling, solitary confinement, incommunicado detention, intimidation, deceit, promises of reward or leniency of or any means (drugs, hypnosis, etc.) that vitiate or weaken your free will.

*To immediate access to proper and adequate medical treatment.

* To be brought for inquest as soon as possible but not later than:
– 12 hours after arrest for a light offense
– 18 hours after arrest for a less grave offense
– 36 hours after arrest for a grave offense

*Before and after interrogation, to the following rights:
• To be informed of your right to demand physical examination by an independent and competent doctor of your own choice;
• If you cannot afford the services of a doctor, to be provided by the Government with a competent and independent doctor to conduct the physical examination (preferably a female doctor if you are female);

The legality of your arrest must be determined in an inquest proceeding conducted by a civilian prosecutor.

If the inquest prosecutor finds that your arrest was unlawful, he or she must recommend to the City or Provincial Prosecutor that you be released. Your release, however, may be subject to a regular preliminary investigation.

If the prosecutor finds that your arrest was lawful, he or she will ask if you desire to avail of a preliminary investigation and if so, will make you execute a waiver of Article 125 of the Revised Penal Code with the assistance of a lawyer. Signing the waiver means that you agree to remain in detention while your preliminary investigation is ongoing.

Note: While the rules on inquest provide that if no lawyer is available, the waiver of Article 125 of the Revised Penal Code may be made with the assistance of a responsible person of your choice, Section 2(e) of R.A. 7438 [The Code of Custodial Investigation] requires that the waiver must be done in the presence of the detainee’s counsel “otherwise the waiver shall be null and void and of no effect.” Section 6 of Rule 112 of the Rules on Criminal Procedure likewise provides that the waiver of Article 125, RPC must be made in the presence of counsel.

If you do not opt for a preliminary investigation or refuse to execute the waiver, the inquest prosecutor will proceed with the inquest by examining the sworn statements/affidavits of the complainant and witnesses and other supporting evidence submitted by the complainant. If the prosecutor finds that probable cause exists, he or she will prepare the corresponding complaint or information against you and recommend to the City or Provincial Prosecutor that it be filed in court.

Probable cause exists when the evidence submitted to the inquest prosecutor engenders a well-founded belief that a crime has been committed and that you are probably guilty of committing it.

* If you are questioned or investigated by the police or military, you have the following rights, among others:

– To remain silent;

– To have competent and independent counsel, preferably of your own choice;

– To be provided with counsel if you cannot afford one;

– To demand a physical examination by an independent and competent doctor of your own choice (or if you cannot afford the services of a doctor, to be provided by the Government with a competent and independent doctor to conduct the physical examination, preferably a female doctor if you are female); and

– To be informed of these rights, and to be told that anything you say may be used against you in court.

* In all criminal prosecutions, you have the following rights:

– Not to be compelled to testify against yourself;
– To remain silent and to counsel;
– To be informed of the nature and causes of the accusation against you;
– To have a speedy, public, and impartial trial;
– To appeal any conviction;
– To be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved;
– To be present and heard by yourself and counsel;
– To avail yourself of court processes to secure the compulsory attendance of witnesses and the presentation of evidence in your defense; and
– To meet the witnesses face-to-face and to cross-examine them.

* When you are brought before the Judge, to make a formal complaint if you have been denied counsel, forced to confess, or manhandled, tortured or intimidated.

* To be released on reasonable bail, unless you are charged with a crime punishable by death, reclusion perpetua, or life imprisonment and the evidence of your guilt is strong.

– Release on bail does not bar you from challenging the validity of your arrest nor the legality of the warrant of arrest, provided you raise these challenges before being arraigned.

* All arresting, detaining, inviting, investigating officers and their companions must follow and observe the following procedures, guidelines, and duties, at the time of your arrest and again during your custodial investigation. These guidelines, procedures, and duties were laid down by the Supreme Court in People v. Mahinay (G.R. No. 122485, 1 February 1999):

– You must be informed in a language known and understood by you of the reason for your arrest, and you must be shown the warrant of arrest. All other warnings, information or communication must also be in a language known to and understood by you.

– You must be warned that you have the right to remain silent and that any statement you make may be used as evidence against you.

– You must be informed that you have the right to be assisted at all times and have the presence of an independent and competent lawyer of your own choice.

_ You must be informed that if you have no lawyer or you cannot afford the services of a lawyer, one will be provided for you; and that a lawyer may also be engaged by any person on your behalf, or may be appointed by the court upon petition by you or by one acting on your behalf.

– Whether or not you have a lawyer, you must be informed that no custodial investigation in any forum shall be conducted except in the presence of your lawyer or unless you have validly waived any of your rights.

– You must be informed that you have the right, at any time, to communicate or confer by the most expedient means (telephone, text message, radio, letter, or messenger) with your lawyer, any member of your family, any medical doctor, priest or minister you choose or one chosen by your immediate family or lawyer; you must also be informed that you have the right, at any time, to be visited by and to confer with duly accredited national or international non-government organizations.

– You must be informed that you have the right to waive any of your rights provided you do so voluntarily, knowingly, intelligently, and you understand the consequences of your waiver.

– If you waive your right to a lawyer, you must be informed you must waive your right in writing in the presence of your lawyer, otherwise you must be warned that your waiver is void even if you insist on your waiver and you choose to speak.

– You must be informed that you may indicate in any manner at any time or stage of the process that you do not wish to be questioned and that once you make such indication, you may not be interrogated, if the interrogation has not yet begun, or the interrogation must cease if it has already begun.

– You must be informed that your initial waiver of your right to remain silent, your right to counsel, or any of your rights, does not bar you from invoking your rights at any time during the process, regardless of whether you have answered some questions or volunteered some statements.

– You must also be informed that any statement or evidence obtained in violation of any of the above procedures or guidelines, whether inculpatory or exculpatory, in whole or in part, is inadmissible in evidence.

(a) A common practice of investigating officers is to present a person arrested with a confession already drawn up and ready for signature, then to intimidate the suspect into signing the statement without reading it. And since uncounselled confessions have been disallowed under the Constitution, the investigating officers may have lawyers to assist you during the confession. Remain firm, but respectful. Insist that you would like to get your own lawyer, and ask for the opportunity to get in touch with your lawyer. Since they now know that you know your rights, the chances that you will be manhandled or coerced into confessing are reduced.

(b) If you have not been informed of your rights to remain silent and to have competent and independent counsel of your choice, the arresting officer or employee or the investigating officer who fails to inform you of your rights is liable to suffer a fine or penalty of imprisonment, or both.

(c) If the arresting officer or employee or the investigating officer or anyone acting upon their orders or in their place fails to provide you with competent and independent counsel if you cannot afford the services of your own counsel, s/he is liable to suffer a fine or a penalty of imprisonment, or both.

(d) Whoever obstructs, prevents, or prohibits your lawyer, any member of your family, any medical doctor or religious minister from visiting and conferring privately with you, or from examining and treating you, or from ministering to your spiritual needs, at any hour of day, or, in urgent cases, of the night, is liable to suffer the penalty of imprisonment and a fine.