IT LOOKS like a lovingly put together fan club site, complete with news clips and photographs — except that it’s a fan club for rebel officers of the armed forces.

The Sundalo Tagapagtanggol ng Pilipino website claims that it was put up by “various rebel groups in the AFP [Armed Forces of the Philippines] and the PNP [Philippine National Police] from 1985 up to the present.”

Screenshot of Sundalo Tagapagtanggol ng Pilipino websiteIt is a reminder that military rebelliousness is a 20-year-old phenomenon and that even if there appears to be a deceptive calm in the barracks these days, the end of the restiveness is nowhere near.

The site says it aims “to be the most comprehensive portal and wellspring of ideas on the Philippine military and police in their continuing involvement in politics and rebellion in Philippine society.”

“The goal,” it continues, “is to provide accessible and available guides and frameworks which may contribute to the understanding and resolution of the rebellion — the elimination of its causes or the attainment of its objectives, or both.”

The site’s ambitions are therefore grand. But so far the frameworks and guides that it provides are a hodge-podge of news clippings, nationalist writings from Renato Constantino and University of the Philippines professor Randy David’s analysis of the current political crisis.

Old template

The rebel officers offer no frameworks and guides of their own, except incendiary political statements about withdrawing support from the government. Their template is clearly still 1986, when mutinous officers declared they were no longer propping up the Marcos dictatorship and unwittingly set off a a three-day uprising that ended with Marcos’s fall.

The “About Us” section of the site almost nostalgically lists all the clandestine and semi-clandestine groupings formed by rebellious officers since 1985, beginning with the amorphous “We Belong” group that bravely unfurled a protest banner during the graduation rites of the Philippine Military Academy, which had Marcos and his loyal chief of staff, Fabian Ver, in attendance.

The list of rebel groups includes the Reform the Armed Forces Movement or RAM, which led several failed coups against the Aquino government and its offspring, the Young Officers Union or YOU. One of the YOU leaders, the Scout Rangers general, Danilo Lim, is implicated in last February’s attempt to unseat President Arroyo. Also on the list is YOUNG, which stands for the Young Officers Union New Generation, the even younger version of YOU.

Album of memories

The site is interesting enough as a repository of coup and rebel military statements and memorabilia. As previously pointed out in this blog, last February’s attempted “withdrawal of support” from President Arroyo represented three generations of military rebels and was an indication of the continuing restiveness in the ranks of a politicized armed forces.

But after a while, one gets a “been there, done that” feeling. The language and the solutions being offered are 20 years old. The site also reflects the rebel soldiers’ search for an elusive ideology and a vision that will help them attain their objectives, whatever these may be (these, too, remain unclear).

But thanks for the plug. The site includes the PCIJ’s book, Kudeta: The Challenge to Philippine Democracy, as among only three books that have “comprehensively discussed” the military rebellion. (The other two are Cecile Arillo’s Breakaway and Criselda Yabes’s Boys from the Barracks). Alas, as the site points out, all three are out of print.

No ideology

Kudeta pointed out in 1990 that the lack of an ideology was a major weakness of the military rebellion and hobbled its ability to inspire more followers outside the AFP. The rebels relied mainly on the military fraternity and the bonds of loyalty shared by classmates at the Philippine Military Academy.

Interestingly enough, the lead essay of Kudeta was written by Rigoberto Tiglao, a founding member of the PCIJ and until recently the president’s close adviser. Tiglao is now ambassador to Greece and resigned from the PCIJ board in the late 1990s.

His analysis of the roots of the military rebellion, however, remains valid. Apart from a lack of ideology, Tiglao pointed out that the military rebellion was set back by the fact that it was rooted only in the AFP, with scant civilian support. A third weakness was the “dearth of insurgent symbols and language” to inspire a wider constituency and therefore reinforced the view that rebel soldiers were “shadowy conspirators lusting for power.” Click here to read Tiglao’s essay.

For sure, the new-generation rebels like the Magdalo group (and the veteran RAM guys as well) have tried to get civilian support, holding meetings with politicians, businessmen, journalists, activists and academics. They also attempted to have their own cultural symbols and rites. They displayed arm bands with letters from the pre-Hispanic alphabet and held blood-compact rituals that alluded to a pre-Hispanic past, as if symbolizing their nationalism and anti-colonialism.

But these attempts were at their best ineffective; at their worst, they were laughable. And it’s not that rebel soldiers have not had enough practice. They’ve been attempting coups for 20 years now. One wonders whether they might one day get it right.

16 Responses to Military rebellion for beginners


July 29th, 2006 at 1:13 am

There are two types of military personnel. Those graduated in PMA and the enlisted men. The enlisted men are just the pawn and the brains of the organization are those who graduated in PMA. If there is something wrong in the military today it is therefore right to assume that there is something wrong with the way PMA educate these soldiers. Maybe it’s time to abolish the PMA and just let these military study abroad. This is the same as UP, it became a symbol of opposition rather than harmonious relations among us.

If we really do not want the military to be politicized then we should ban the military appointment in the government. The government is a civilian in nature and therefore we do not need military personnel in the public office. Therefore it will be clear that a military is a soldier and a politician is a politician, One can not have it all/both. Once a general is retired from the service it means he is retired and should be ban to run for any public office.

Remove all the military camps from the city (an administrative office not more than a 100 personnel can be allowed). Relocate these camps in an island away from the seat of the government and let the PNP exercise its power within the city. If we do not have enough police force, then stop recruiting soldier and instead double the recruitment of the Police force who is civilian in nature. Fortify NBI and let it answerable to the congress not to the president



July 29th, 2006 at 4:59 am

The Philippine Military Academy: Courage, Integrity and Loyalty.

The PMA lost all of its aforementioned values when Martial Law was declared. It supported Marcos through the plunder years until 1986 when the people were once again duped by the same ruling class. Since then, the PMA has been morally bankrupt. And now, they are being used as pawns to annihilate their own countrymen (aka communists) most of whom marginalized by the same corrupt, ruling class.

Let’s face it, we have no respectable military anymore. Do we really even have a competent military to defend our country against foreign aggression? No! To this day we depend on hand-me-downs from the United States and monetary support. This institution is delusional. It pretends to have courage, integrity and loyalty. Plain and simple, does not exist. I say have our PMA be annexed by West Point Academy to restore discipline and its core values. Oh I forgot, sorry, we’re supposed to be independent and nationalistic, that would be neo-colonialism huh? Oh well, let corruption annex PMA altogether then.

Philippine Marcos Academy
Philippine Mga-tanga Academy
Philippine Magnanakaw Academy
Philippine Ma-panggulo Academy
Philippine Mamamatay-tao Academy


tongue in, anew

July 29th, 2006 at 5:20 am

“…If there is something wrong in the military today it is therefore right to assume that there is something wrong with the way PMA educate these soldiers. Maybe it’s time to abolish the PMA and just let these military study abroad. This is the same as UP, it became a symbol of opposition rather than harmonious relations among us…”

It’s easy to pin the blame on the PMA for everything that’s wrong in the AFP. The same fingerpointing is the very justification by the PNP to put up it’s own academy. Well, what do you get? Policemen who are as corrupt as their predecessors. Maybe even more.

Now, if you are speaking of the rebellious few, these are the exception who took their idealism with them to their actual service of country after graduation and chose to live an uncomfortable life on the edge when the situation called for it.

Gen. Danny Lim could have kept his idealism to himself and scratched his balls until his lapels are filled with more stars. He might have even made it as AFP comptroller and like Garcia, enrich himself, become a naturalized foreign national, and take out hundreds of thousands of dollars in suppliers’ “gifts” whenever any member of the family leaves.

Maybe, too, had Col. Ariel Querubin remained apathetic and allowed his highly-disciplined Marines to be used as instruments in more cheating in the future, he might even become Chief-of-Staff and retire as ambassador to a first-world nation and enjoy jet-set priveleges backed by an unlimited expense account.

These people know the consequences of their actions yet despite the odds, chose to convince their superiors to join their cause in fulfilling their oath as protectors of the people. Real putschists who grab power for themselves just shoot their superiors point blank.

And regarding UP, you obviously don’t belong there. UP is a symbol of idealism, independence, and excellence. But don’t worry, these days, even UP has gone mainstream and fast becoming an institution for the social elite. Look at all the parking lots, hardly can you find a space in almost all the buildings that the cars are parked in the streets. A spectacle you thought you’d see only in neighboring Ateneo or the distant La Salle.

Sure, there are still the activists but very few in the mold of a Tañada, or a Diokno, or an Aquino. People who would sacrifice to walk the extra mile, at the risk of life or limb, to stand up against injustices and inequalities are indeed a rare breed in these days.

You may be right, maybe its time to close these schools. They now produce more and more of people who just want to get screwed in their puckered hole to preserve the status quo, and “move on” until it’s their turn to screw the next ones.

Heavens help us.



July 29th, 2006 at 9:28 am

It is already imbedded in most everyone mind set that power brought forth wealth, glamor, and privileges of unlimited proportion. Being in power not only that a person makes the law, he or she stands above that law. The very reason that when opportunity offers itself, everyone would grab it, by way of cheating, lying, and if they don’t work resort to even sinister acts. The institutions such as the PMA and the UP maybe the breeding grounds for these attitudes, but I doubt it very much. It is deeper than that. And to dig to the the bottom and even just taking a look at the roots may not as easy, to rid them is even harder.



July 29th, 2006 at 10:16 am

Correction, not all officers of AFP are PMAers. Some are professionals commisioned to be officers, and some are ROTC graduates..and the most infamous ROTC graduate is Gen. Fabian Ver.

Kaya lang sikat ang mga PMAer officers dahil masyado silang binibeybi, tuloy lumalaki ang ulo at lagi nilang iniisip na sila ang makakapag-pabago ng buhay ng mga Pilipino. Megalomaniac kumbaga. At kaya nabuo ang RAM, dahil na rin sa inggit ng mga PMA grads sa mga bata ni Ver, pero kung produkto ng PMA ang Chief of Staff at sila-sila ang mga nakapila sa promotion walang nag-aaklas.

I think it’s not the institution per se, PMA man yan o ROTC parehas tinatablan ng bala ang mga yan. Ang dapat lang, habang Junior Officer pa lang at maikli pa ang sungay pinuputol na yan at sinisipa na sa serbisyo.


Global News Blog » Philippines - Female Cadets Show Military Excellence

July 29th, 2006 at 11:36 am

[…] Military rebellion for beginnersPhilippine Center for Investigative Journalism, Philippines – 15 hours ago… ng Pilipino website claims that it was put up by various rebel groups in the AFP [Armed Forces of the Philippines] and the PNP [Philippine National Police … […]


July 29th, 2006 at 3:25 pm

tongue in, anew

It has come from your own facts……“The same fingerpointing is the very justification by the PNP to put up it’s own academy.” …… It is therefore been known that problem exist in the PMA education and the solution was to form an academy that is civilian in nature. However, the failure of PNP Academy is another issue of leadership. We are talking of institution here that instead of making good breed of leadership become a source of lost ideals. Surely the foundation of education in this institution must be changed if not remove.

I do not think that a rebellious few is as right term, when we have rebellious soldier again and again and new names appear it is become a fact of the source, they are more than a few.

Sure I do not belong in UP that is suppose to be a school for the people and yet it cost more to study there than any other private school around the block. It is not the issue here anyway. The issue is it become a ground of political hostilities and created people who are now the main enemy of the estate. A true politician are those people that do not take the street as their parliament, true politicians are those who knows the art of politics who use the chamber as the right venue, silently work it out as written in the existing rules and despite of the odds will able to convince the majority to take its course.

At least we agree on something, close UP and let the government provide an ordinary school where people study in an ordinary way accessible to the many not to the few.


Of course the problem is deeper than UP and PMA, but making something of the known facts is a start of solving issues and problems towards a better future. Generally your analysis is right no matter what it is the people attitude that command, it is therefore going back to education. We need to change the education and we can start that from abolishing school that breed lost ideals.


I stand to be corrected scud, and thank you for the info. However Ver became an officer not because of what he is, he became an officer because of blood connection, we all know that. And though there maybe some officers out of PMA they are not a force to recon with and therefore it is not the source of the problem.

If you may notice it is the junior officer who are the most vocals when it come to coup, therefore the education they get from PMA is still very fresh in their mind. The conclusion of that fact is there is something wrong in their fundamental education out of PMA. These young officers are those who established different organization within the organization, they are the lost ideals of PMA.



July 29th, 2006 at 4:37 pm

closing down these schools is a simplistic way of solving the problem. heck, if you close down UP you would deprive the country of another randy david and another shiela coronel!


Juan Makabayan

July 29th, 2006 at 4:40 pm

I find the ‘withdrawal of support’ imprecise as to Lim’s intent and justification; ‘Renewal of Pledge to Uphold and Defend the Constitution’ is a clearer context.

In pursuing this point, i’m hoping that the restiveness among our soldiers be chanelled along this line, the constitutional high-ground, by a ‘renewal of pledge to uphold and defend the constitution’ .

1)”A Renewal of Pledge and an Affirmation of Loyalty to the Constitution!”.

2) Affirms, and clarifies that, his sworn support is to the office not the person of the Commander-in-Chief;

3) Questions the legitimacy of the GMA’s assumption to the office of the commander in chief: Is it in accordance with the constitution that the soldiers have sworn to defend?

4) Questions GMA’s right to remain in office and;

5) Invokes his moral right as a citizen and as a soldier to the sanctity and honor of his pledge, that the Constitution that he has sworn to uphold and defend with his life and his honor, not be violated and desecrated, in any way by, any official, civilian or military, including and especially, by the president and commander-in-chief of the Republic.



July 29th, 2006 at 5:41 pm

sa huling pagmumuni-muni, ang military, para kanino?

kung gusto talaga nila ng pagbabago, nasa tamang direksyon sila kung bigyan tuon pansin ang ilan sa mga obserbasyon ni Capt. Rene Jarque. ang pagsisilbi sa mamamayan, hindi ang paglilikida nito lalo na sa mga naghihikahos na magsasaka na walang ibang mapuntahan kung nangangailangan ng hustisya kung hindi ang umanib na lang sa rebolusyunaryong NPA.

ang 2 dekadang pag-aanalisa mula ng mapabagsak ang diktadurang Marcos ay di pa ba sapat?

iisa lang ang ibig sabihin nito, MALING-MALI ang perspektiba ng mga namumuno sa mga rebeldeng grupong sundalo; lalo na ang hinggil sa pakikipag-alyansa sa mga pulitiko, higanteng kapitalista, at papaliw-paliw na “middle forces”. lagi nilang nakakalimutang balikan ang tunay na nagpapatakbo ng kahit na anong bansa: ang mga manggagawa, at magsasaka.

hanggat hindi nila ito matanggap, pihadong ang mga ganid na naghaharing-uri (ruling class) ang siya pa rin laging magtatamasa at makikinabang sa anumang pakiki-alam nila sa usaping pulitika.

si Col. Khadaffy, naiintindihan ito.

sina Chou-en Lai, naiintindihan ito.

ang military component ng Great October rebolusyon ng Rusya, naiintindihan ito.

ang unang demokratikong rebolusyon ng Pransya, naiintindihan ito.

ang listahang ito ay mahaba.

hanggat patuloy nilang binibili ang argumentong kalaban nila ang mga nag-aaklas na taumbayan lalo na ang 2 sektor na nabanggit, manggagawa at magsasaka, WALA PO KAYONG PATUTUNGUHAN, kundi hanggang sa pagiging tagapagtanggol lamang kayo sa mga interes ng mga naghaharing uri.

sa panimula bilang tugon; mungkahi ng inyong abang lingkod, sa kada may ‘engkwentro’ hangga’t maari walang magpapaputok kung maiiwasan, imbes dito UMPISAHAN ang pakiki-pagusap, tungo sa puntong unawaan ng dahilan ng pakikidigma.

maging ito man ay MNLF, MILF o NPA.

gunuon din sana sa kabilang panig, kada may opensibang gagawin, mas makakabuti para sa lahat kung walang putukan imbes. isa-praktika ang katagang, ‘ the greatest military offensive is when those winning over the enemy to your side, without firing a shot…’

panghuli, wala pa rin tatalo sa taktikang pag-aaral, pakikipag-usap, at ang sa pakikinig.


tongue in, anew

July 30th, 2006 at 2:53 am, you misunderstood my post.

I should’ve specified further that the non-PMA policemen were always bypassed come promotion time in favor of Peemayers at the time when the PNP (then known as PC-INP)was still under the AFP. After the PNP Law was passed, it shed its military character and became civilian in nature. That brightened hopes for non-Peemayers to become police top brass but still it hardly saw light as the Ayers still dominated the highest posts. All the more widening the divide between the two groups.

Whether the creation of the PNP Academy has changed this is doubtful. Which ends in the conclusion that both academies may be teaching their students the best they can, but fraternal origin still rules. And of course, their politico-sponsors always have the last say.
It’s the people not the school.

Even your theory of sending the military abroad to study, because the PMA is teaching wrong, will not stop soldiers from planning mutinees. Look, Gen. Danny Lim was a West Point topnotcher, and Fort Benning Infantry Course topnotcher, aside from topping the local PMA exams (which he took while he was a UP freshman), he also topped the Scout Ranger Course and the Command and General Staff Course. His superior military education, foreign and local, has obviously contributed strongly to his, er, rebellious character.

I still maintain it’s a rebellious few. There are more than one hundred generals and officers are about ten thousand. To make a sweeping generalization based on the acts of a few soldiers is a big mistake.

You say “Sure I do not belong in UP that is suppose to be a school for the people and yet it cost more to study there than any other private school around the block”.

UP has been implementing socialized tuition, meaning those who have less shall pay less and those with more shall pay more. Students are required to provide their families’ income tax returns upon admission and this determines their tuition fees.

I’m sorry, but if by “around the block” you mean the Diliman campus, which is adjacent to very expensive schools Ateneo and Miriam College, you have your facts wrong. The other school in the neighborhood, PSBA, may even be collecting higher fees than those paying the lowest brackets in the socialized tuition structure.

The reason why, as I said, parking spaces are scarce is because more affluent people believe they can’t get the same brand of education elsewhere at the same cost. Secondly, the quality of graduates public high schools have been producing leaves much to be desired, even their honor students flunk the UPCAT entrance tests. I don’t know if student demographics will bear me out on this but as I see it, the poor are fast becoming a minority of the student population.

Politics is a different ballgame. It has, and will always be, the playground of the elite. Those whose interests cannot be served by the breed of horse-trading politicians we have in congress today make their voices heard desperately even if just among themselves.

The parliament of the streets is no longer a monopoly of UP. Today, PUP appears to have taken the cudgels as the seat of student activism as its Diliman cousin has increasingly gone the way of the elites.

Close PMA and UP? Nah, I was just being polite when I said you may be right. Read between the lines.

I agree with Stoxbnx3 who says we can’t deprive the country of a Randy David, a Shiela Coronel, or a Malou Mangahas, and a lot, lot more. Nor can we deprive it of a Honasan, a Trillanes, or a Lim, and a lot, lot more.


Ambuot Saimo

August 1st, 2006 at 4:04 am

In a family, the recalcitrant or the rebelious child is almost always the one who have “seen the light outside of the family” or educated. It is because as a result of his interactions with the outside world, he accumulated vast knowledge and ideas and his thinking is not just limited to what is being fed by his father (for example) as with his siblings who preffered to “stay home”.

For 3 centuries, the Spanish government in the Philippines did not open public schools for fear that education will open the eyes of the indios and in the process a threat to their continued occupation of the Islands. Schools at the time are meant for elites only.

In the same token, there two classes of soldiers. The “enlightened” and the “ordinary” soldier.

The enlightened soldier thinks and acts rationally. He is not just content with always nodding his chin to whatever his “commander” tells him to do even if it is legally or morally wrong. This is the bred of Lim and company. They are the enlightned soldiers. They sacrificed their career advancement for the “sake of the Republic”.

On the other hand, there is the ordinary soldier. This is the “yes ma-am” or robot type soldiers. They usually don’t have brains of their own and therefore they act only as dictated like attack dogs. This is the bred of Esperon and company. They will lick asses to advance their careers in this “sick republic”.

How about you soldier? Which group do you belong?



August 1st, 2006 at 10:02 am

Ambuot Saimo, I think it’s quite unfair that your definition of the ordinary soldier who in your words is a yes ma’m or robot type is brainless and an attack dog. That’s rather a sweeping statement. In fairness to all the Filipino soldiers, a good soldier is disciplined to follow orders and not to break the chain of command. If they must speak out their minds publicly and not course it through the chain they are free to do so but first they should resign their command. If they cannot do this then they have no business serving in the military. They cannot have the best of two worlds. This is why there is a common saying that there is dictatorship in the military because of the strict discipline it imposes.

Obviously, you meant those soldiers who refused to break the chain of command are ass lickers and not “enlightened,” to use your words. I cannot believe that you would prefer your “enlightened” soldiers to have political predilection as well so that if they disagree with government policies or whenever things are not done their way they could rebel and bring down governments. If that is the csase, we might as well install a military junta.



August 1st, 2006 at 2:19 pm


This is why there is a common saying that there is dictatorship in the military because of the strict discipline it imposes.

fair enough.

there is, however, the tradition of junior personnel having the right to question superiors — this tradition is the “all right, sir?” which used to be done without fear of an insubordination charge.

these days, it’s probably worth one’s life merely to ask the flags that.



August 2nd, 2006 at 9:01 am


This expression, “all right sir?”, is an old PMA tradition and the one asked is supposed to tell the truth. This is part of the Honor Code of the PMA which says a cadet does not lie, does not steal, does not cheat. Now, how many of the top officers in the military today that came from the PMA can stand up and honestly answer yes to that question?

No, Jester, nobody loses his life for merely asking that question. They just don’t bother asking it any more. If they did, and if every single one of them followed the traditional Honor Code, we would have had the only virtuous outfit in the country.

I make this distinction apropos of Abuot Saimo’s rather harsh sweeping statement, unfairly demeaning to ordinary Filipino soldiers.


jose miguel

December 10th, 2006 at 7:54 am

On the last Birthday of the Philippine Marines, is there anything to be proud of on the part of the few? Some prevented the unit from discharging it’s sacred duty- defend the country from foreign invaders. Let us check documents such as that of e. san juan and his bulatlat website, luzviminda francisco and her writings on the filipino-american war, the book “in our image” by stanley karnow, writings of renato constantino, writings about gen artemio ricarte from the book “a question of heroes” by nick joaquin, websites on the filipino american war by mark twain and others who have documented or researched on what the americans have been doing overtly and covertly to our country.

Those documents show that around 250,000 to 900,000 Filipinos died in the American invasion of the Philippines in the 1900s. They show that after the very big reduction of Filipino Resistance against these alien invasion, the Americans transmitted to us a rare infectious disease which spread only in the Philippines. They injected to us the Perpetuation of American Colonization Virus. The instruments they used were the education, economic, political, defense and legal system.

They also provided protection to the Chinese whom we have been trying to resist their control of our economy. That is why until now our local supply of food is decreasing but the imported supply is increasing because the distribution system is controlled by the Chinese. That is why our countrymen do not have access to our vast resources because it is these chinese and Americans who are in control of them. That is why there is an exodus of Filipinos to foreign lands and use their skills to serve foreigners.

They have created a set-up where our government up to now is their puppet government. That is why our government from the commonwealth period up to Erap then followed by Gloria has been protecting these foreigners, many of whom have already acquired documents of being filipino citizens. That is why on paper Philippine Economy have been filipinized but in reality, the same people still control our economic resources and the same original Filipinos still do not have access to the economic resources of our forefathers. That is the reason why even if it is bad for our security to allow foreigners to set foot in our jungles in Zamboanga, Basilan and Jolo since those are our tactical assets, American soldiers continue to conduct terrain familiarization there. That is the reason why our soldiers are so dependent and subservient operationally, logistically and doctrinally to the americans.

That is why many Filipinos have the vision to be like the americans because we have lost our national identity. Our national identity was born when we became independent from Spain. It was corrupted by the Americans when they invaded us.

Today, we are independent but, BUT ONLY ON PAPER! Evidence cited shows America still controls us. GMA government is a puppet government of the Americans and the Chinese.

What is the Filipino soldier doing about this? What has the constitution the government is invoking got to do with our being controlled by the Americans and the Chinese. The Chinese here refers to Chinese in the Philippines with manipulated Filipino citizenship to facilitate their control of our economy. This does not refer to Gen Danilo Lim, Atty Tiu, Alejandro Lichauco and many of their kind who are more Filipinos than Gloria, Erap, Atienza- all collaborators of Alien Rule. What has the Filipino soldier done with the vision started by Bonifacio, Mabini, Malvar, Ricarte, Claro M. Recto, the late Renato Constantino?

The Filipino Soldiers, have a duty to defend the Filipino People. The National Identity has been under attack by foreigners. It is being corrupted. If our identity will be totally damaged, how else can we live or even exist as a nation?

What should be the answer of the Filipino Soldier?

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