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The lack of specific laws on the use of excess campaign donations has led to windfall income for some candidates.

Three aspirants for president, one for vice president and 16 for senator did not submit their Statement of Contributions and Expenditures.

Big donors who gave P10 million to P20 million accounted for only 19% of Vice President Leni Robredo’s campaign funds for the May 2022 presidential elections. The rest came from a long list of relatively small donors.

Ferdinand “Bongbong” Marcos Jr. and Sara Duterte each won landslide victories in the May 2022 polls, but their spending is worlds apart. Duterte spent only P3 per voter to win a national post. Marcos spent P9.60 per voter, almost breaking the spending cap.