A PCIJ Primer: Unpacking Federalism

Stats on the state of the regions:
Only half of all Pinoys are voters

WE ARE a nation of more than a hundred million people, but as of 2016, only one in every two Filipinos had registered as voters and could be allowed to participate in elections.

If the pitch to shift to a federal system of government gets approved and submitted to a plebiscite, it is only this half of the national population that are registered voters whose decision would be counted.

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Data from the Commission on Elections (Comelec) show that only 53.8 percent of the country’s total population or 54 million registered to vote in the 2016 National and Local Elections.

Of that number, even fewer or 44 million (81 percent of the total registered voters and 43.6 percent of the country’s total population of 100.2 million) actually voted.

The absolute figures are 54,363, 844 registered voters vis-a-vis 44,549,848 who actually voted in May 2016, according to Comelec.

The number of voters should be higher in fact at 6 in every 10 Filipinos, according to data from the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA). But not every Filipino who could vote has registered to claim the right.

As of the 2010 Census of Population and Housing, PSA said 60.3 percent of the 92.09 million household population, at least 55.5 million Filipinos were already of voting age (18 years old and above) at the time. The 2010 proportion was more than the 56.6 percent voting-age population recorded in 2000.

However, Comelec data show that there were only 50.7 million registered voters in 2010 and only 38 million actually voted. That 75 percent turnout was then the highest recorded in 30 years of Philippine election history or since 1978.

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By the 2016 elections, the total number of female registered voters in the country was recorded at slightly higher than that of males: 28.1 million (51.6 percent of the country’s total registered voters) compared to 26.3 million male registered voters (48.4 percent).

In 2016, the female voter turnout of 22.9 million (51.6 percent of the country’s voter turnout; 81.6 percent of female registered voters) was also higher than that of males.

Only 21.1 million registered male voters cast their ballot in 2016 (48.4 percent of the country’s turnout; 80.4 percent of male registered voters).

Majority of the registered voters are adults between the age of 20 and 59, at 44.6 million (82.1 percent of the country’s total registered voters).

More than 12 percent or 6.69 million registered voters are senior citizens aged 60 and above.

The balance of 3.04 million (5.6 percent) are youths between age 17 and 19.

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FEMALE, MALE VOTERS

Starting 2004, a new trend has emerged — that of the number of women outpacing the men in the league of registered voters.

During the 2004 general elections, there were 17,014,643 registered female voters and only 16,495,449 male voters, for a gap of 3.1 percent.

In the 2007 legislative and local elections, the difference was slightly lower at 2.6 percent. There were 16,503,110 registered female voters compared to 16,084,962 registered male voters.

In the 2010 elections, however, the gender gap rose to five percent in favor of the women. There were 19,068,323 registered female voters and 18,155,722 registered male voters.

In the May 2013 elections, there were 27,406,600 registered female voters than men, 26,379,623 voters, for a variance of 3.9 percent.

For the May 2016 elections, there were 28,052,138 registered female voters and only 26,311,706 male voters, a sharp 6.6 percent difference.

In 2013, the top provinces with more registered female than male voters were the National Capital Region (NCR), Cavite, Cebu, Rizal, and Laguna.

In contrast though, some of the provinces beset with conflict, such as North Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, and Maguindanao, registered bigger numbers of male voters.

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‘VULNERABLE’ AND UNLETTERED

They may be fewer and have special needs but the right to suffrage of voters with disability and with little or no education is just as important as that all voters share.

In large measure, their being “vulnerable voters” derives from the internal conflict and the poverty that afflict us all in the nation.

In the 2013 elections, Comelec counted a total of 626,236 registered voters with disability, and another 339,144 who are illiterate or with little or no formal schooling and could not read or write.

The number of voters with disability was recorded by Comelec at a much lower 318,013 in 2016.

Another 99,764 indigenous people have also registered as voters as of 2016.

In both elections, however, the data reveal that a majority of voters with disability and low literacy come from areas that are also the poorest in the country, and those most vulnerable if not to cheating and fraud, then to other irregularities that may visit the balloting this year. The big numbers of persons with disability among registered voters are from the conflict-affected regions of Mindanao.

As of the 2010 Census of Population and Housing, the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) said that of 71.5 million Filipinos aged 10 years old and above, 97.5 percent or 69.8 million were literate or could read and write. This was better than the literacy rate of 92.3 percent recorded in the 2000 census.

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Yet another source of municipal-level data on persons with disability (PWDs) is the 2011 National Household Targeting System for Poverty Reduction of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD). As of February 2011, DSWD data showed that across age groups that year, there were 302,421 PWDs across the nation. They included:

• 27,972 who are hearing-impaired;
• 53,034, vision-impaired;
• 28,259 speech-impaired;
• 41,551 orthopedic cases;
• 45,396 with multiple disabilities;
• 28,610 mentally-impaired; and
• 77,599 with other disability.

The DSWD survey excluded as yet the Set-A beneficiaries of the Conditional Cash Transfer Program in 2009-10. It reported that the country’s PWD community comes from 4,466,649 households, or about a fifth of the 20.17 million total households in 2010. Official data show that by 2015, the number of households in the country had risen to 22.98 million.

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BIGGER AND SMALLER BASES

CALABARZON has the largest voting population among the regions, with currently 7.6 million registered voters (14.0 percent of the country’s total registered voters) and a turnout of 5.9 million (13.4 percent of the total nationwide).

The Cordillera Autonomous Region (CAR) has the smallest number of voters at 906,000 (1.67 percent of the country’s total registered voters) and a turnout of 757,000 (1.72 percent of the country’s voters who actually voted).

Among the provinces, Cebu has the largest voting population, at 2.7 million, followed by Cavite at 1.84 million, Pangasinan at 1.71 million, and Laguna at 1.68 million.

Batanes has the lowest voting population, at 11,000, followed by Camiguin at 58,000, Apayao at 65,000, and Siquijor and Dinagat Islands both at 69,000.

THE VOTERS OF THE REGIONS

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NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION

FAST FACTS (Rank among 18 regions):
Registered Voters (2016): 6.25 million (No.2)
Voter Turnout (2016): 4.73 million

The National Capital Region will be assigned as the federal capital of the Philippines.

For statistical purposes, the PSA grouped the 17 cities and municipality of NCR into four districts: 1st District: City of Manila; 2nd District: Mandaluyong City, Marikina City, Pasig City, Quezon City, San Juan City; 3rd District: Caloocan City, Malabon City, Navotas City, Valenzuela City; and 4th District: Las Pinas City, Makati City, Muntinlupa City, Paranaque City, Pasay City, Pateros, and Taguig City.

NCR has the second largest voting population among the proposed federated regions, with 6,253,249 registered voters (11.5 percent of the country’s total registered voters) in 2016. Only 4,731,407 of these voters (10.7 percent of the country’s voters’ turnout) though actually took to the polls in 2016.

NCR has the second lowest voters’ turnout among the proposed federated regions, at just 76 percent of its total registered voters.

As of 2016, 3,426,657 of NCR’s registered voters are female (54.8 percent of NCR’s total registered voters), while 2,826,592 are male (45.2 percent). NCR has the largest gender difference among the proposed federated regions.

Of NCR’s registered voters, 5,166,803 are adults between the age 20 and 59 (82.6 percent of NCR’s total registered voters), 721,967 are senior citizens (11.5 percent), while 364,479 are youths between ages 17 and 19 (5.8 percent).

NCR’s second district has the largest voting population, at 2,030,961 (32 percent of NCR’s total registered voters), followed by the fourth district at 1,959,417 (31 percent), third district at 1,288,392 (21 percent), and the city of Manila at 974,479 (16 percent).

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CORDILLERA ADMINISTRATIVE REGION

FAST FACTS (Rank among 18 regions):
Registered Voters (2016): 906,162 (No.18)
Voter Turnout (2016): 757,748

The Cordillera Administrative Region will comprise the provinces of Abra, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, Apayao, and Mountain Province.

CAR has the smallest voting population among the proposed federated regions, with 906,162 registered voters (1.67 percent of the country’s total registered voters) in 2016. Out of CAR’s total number of registered voters, 83.62 percent or 757,748 voters actually voted in the 2016 National and Local Elections.

There are slightly more registered male voters in CAR, at 456,154 (50.3 percent of CAR’s total registered voters), than female voters, at 450,008 (49.7 percent).

Of CAR’s registered voters, 750,514 are adults between ages 20 and 59 (82.8 percent of the total), 118,218 are senior citizens above the age 60 (13 percent), and 37,430 are youths between ages 17 and 19 (4.1 percent).

Benguet has the highest voting population among the provinces in CAR, at 352,291 (39 percent of CAR’s total registered voters), followed by Abra at 156,968 (17 percent), Kalinga at 121,375 (13 percent), Ifugao at 112,328 (12 percent), Mountain Province at 98,333 (11 percent), and Apayao at 64,867 (seven percent).

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ILOCOS REGION

FAST FACTS (Rank among 18 regions):
Registered Voters (2016): 2.95 million (No.6)
Voter Turnout (2016): 2.53 million

The proposed Federated Region of Ilocos will comprise the current Region I provinces: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, and Pangasinan.

Among the proposed federated regions, Ilocos has the sixth largest voting population, with 2,950,775 registered voters (5.43 percent of the country’s total registered voters). With 2,526,422 voters who actually voted during the 2016 elections (5.74 percent of the national voters’ turnout), Ilocos had the highest voters’ turnout among the regions, at 85.76 percent of its total registered voters.

As of 2016, 1,498,242 of Ilocos’s registered voters are female (50.8 percent of Ilocos’s total registered voters), while 1,452,533 registered voters are male (49.2 percent).

Of its registered voters, 2,400,823 are adults between ages 20 and 59 (81.4 percent of Ilocos’s total registered voters), 433,725 are senior citizens above age 60 (14.7 percent), while 116,227 are youths between ages 17 and 19 (3.9 percent).

Pangasinan has the largest voting population among the Ilocos provinces, at 1,705,260 (58 percent of the region’s total registered voters), followed by La Union at 454,778 (15 percent), Ilocos Sur at 411,951 (14 percent), and Ilocos Norte at 378,786 (13 percent).

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CAGAYAN VALLEY

FAST FACTS (Rank among 18 regions):
Registered Voters (2016): 1.92 million (No.14)
Voter Turnout (2016): 1.56 million

The proposed Federated Region of Cagayan Valley will comprise the current Region II provinces: Batanes, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, and Quirino.

The region has the fifth smallest voting population among the proposed federated regions, with 1,920,952 registered voters (3.53 percent of the country’s total) in 2016. Cagayan Valley’s voter turnout in 2016 was 1,560,772, or 80 percent of its registered voters.

As of 2016, 966,745 of Cagayan Valley’s registered voters are female (50.3 percent of the region’s total registered voters), while 954,207 registered voters are male (49.7 percent).

Of Cagayan Valley’s registered voters, 1,556,732 are adults between ages 20 and 59 (81 percent of the region’s total), 216,210 are senior citizens above age 60 (11.3 percent), while 148,010 are youths between ages 17 and 19 (7.7 percent).

Isabela has the largest voting population among the provinces in Cagayan Valley, at 911,910 (47 percent of the region’s total), followed by Cagayan at 647,035 (34 percent), Nueva Vizcaya at 246,540 (13 percent), Quirino at 104,461 (5 percent), and Batanes at 11,006 (one percent).

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CENTRAL LUZON

FAST FACTS (Rank among 18 regions):
Registered Voters (2016): 6.06 million (No.3)
Voter Turnout (2016): 4.97 million

The proposed Federated Region of Central Luzon will comprise the current Region III provinces: Aurora, Bataan, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Tarlac, and Zambales.

The region has the third largest voting population among the proposed federated regions, with 6,056,392 registered voters (11.14 percent of the country’s total registered voters) in 2016. Central Luzon’s voter turnout that election year was 4,974,372, or 82 percent of its registered voters.

As of 2016, 3,156,086 of Central Luzon’s registered voters are female (52.1 percent of the region’s total registered voters), while 2,900,306 are male (47.9 percent).

Of Central Luzon’s registered voters, 5,051,194 are adults between ages 20 and 59 (83.4 percent of the region’s total registered voters), 788,004 are senior citizens above age 60 (13 percent), while 217,194 are youths between ages 17 and 19 (3.6 percent).

Bulacan has the largest voting population among the region’s provinces, at 1,640,615 (27 percent of the region’s total), followed by Nueva Ecija at 1,314,658 (22 percent), Pampanga 1,278,260 (21 percent), Tarlac 739,526 (12 percent), Bataan 494,076 (8 percent), Zambales 462,732 (eight percent), and Aurora 126,525 (two percent).

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CALABARZON

FAST FACTS (Rank among 18 regions):
Registered Voters (2016): 7.62 million (No.1)
Voter Turnout (2016): 5.91 million

The proposed Federated Region of CALABARZON will comprise the current Region IV-A provinces: Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal, and Quezon.

CALABARZON has the largest voting population among the proposed federated regions, with 7,619,272 registered voters (14.02 percent of the country’s total) in 2016. CALABARZON’s voter turnout that election year was 5,906,393, or 78 percent of its total registered voters.

As of 2016, 4,048,859 of CALABARZON’s registered voters are female (53.1 percent of the region’s total registered voters), while 3,570,413 are male (46.9 percent).

Of the region’s registered voters, 6,319,382 are adults between ages 20 and 59 (82.9 percent of the region’s total), 835,169 are senior citizens above age 60 (11 percent), while 464,721 are youths between ages 17 and 19 (6.1 percent).

Cavite has the largest voting population among the provinces in CALABARZON, at 1,843,163 (24 percent), followed by Laguna at 1,675,366 (22 percent), Batangas at 1,526,195 (20 percent), Rizal at 1,450,458 (15 percent), and Quezon at 1,124,090 (15 percent).

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MIMAROPA

FAST FACTS (Rank among 18 regions):
Registered Voters (2016): 1.59 million (No.16)
Voter Turnout (2016): 1.27 million

The proposed Federated Region of MIMAROPA will comprise the current Region IV-B provinces: Occidental Mindoro and Oriental Mindoro, Marinduque, Romblon, and Palawan.

MIMAROPA has the third smallest voting population among the proposed federated regions, with 1,589,326 registered voters (2.92 percent of the country’s total registered voters) in 2016. MIMAROPA’s voter turnout that election year was 1,273,017, or 80 percent of its total registered voters.

As of 2016, 803,462 of MIMAROPA’s registered voters are female (50.6 percent of the region’s total), while 785,864 are male (49.4 percent).

Of MIMAROPA’s registered voters, 1,326,318 are adults between ages 20 and 59 (83.5 percent of the region’s total registered voters), 199,106 are senior citizens above age 60 (12.5 percent), while 63,902 are youths between ages 17 and 19 (four percent).

Palawan has the largest voting population among the region’s provinces at 583,057 (37 percent of MIMAROPA’s total), followed by Oriental Mindoro at 445,216 (28 percent), Occidental Mindoro at 249,734 (16 percent), Romblon at 175,209 (11 percent), and Marinduque at 136,110 (nine percent).

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BICOL REGION

FAST FACTS (Rank among 18 regions):
Registered Voters (2016): 3.12 million (No.5)
Voter Turnout (2016): 2.65 million

The proposed Federated Region of Bicol will comprise the current Region V provinces: Albay, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Catanduanes, Masbate, and Sorsogon.

Among the proposed federated regions, Bicol has the fifth largest voting population, with 3,121,662 registered voters (5.74 percent of the country’s total). Bicol’s voter turnout in 2016 was 2,647,166, or 85 percent of its total registered voters.

As of 2016, 1,606,228 of Bicol’s registered voters are female (51.5 percent of the region’s total registered voters), while 1,515,434 are male (48.5 percent).

Of Bicol’s registered voters, 2,549,459 are adults between ages 20 and 59 (81.7 percent of the region’s total registered voters), 426,092 are senior citizens above age 60 (13.6 percent), while 146,111 are youths between ages 17 and 19 (4.7 percent).

Camarines Sur has the largest voting population among the provinces in Bicol, at 1,001,870 (32 percent), followed by Albay at 742,204 (24 percent), Masbate at 477,701 (15 percent), Sorsogon 425,025 (14 percent), Camarines Norte 300,890 (10 percent), and Catanduanes 173,972 (six percent).

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WESTERN VISAYAS

FAST FACTS (Rank among 18 regions):
Registered Voters (2016): 2.58 million (No.9)
Voter Turnout (2016): 2.18 million

The proposed Federated Region of Western Visayas will comprise five of the six provinces in the current Region VI: Aklan, Antique, Capiz, Guimaras, and Iloilo.

Among the proposed federated regions, Western Visayas has the ninth largest voting population, with 2,578,661 registered voters (4.74 percent of the country’s total registered voters). The region’s voter turnout in 2016 was 2,178,753, or 84 percent of its total registered voters.

As of 2016 national and local elections, 1,313,416 of Western Visayas’s registered voters are female (50.9 percent of the region’s total registered voters), while 1,265,245 are male (49.1 percent).

Of the total number of registered voters in the region, 1,963,488 are adults between ages 20 and 59 (76.1 percent of the region’s total), 335,832 are senior citizens above age 60 (11 percent), while 279,341 are youths between ages 17 and 19 (10.8 percent). Among the proposed federated regions, Western Visayas has the highest percentage of registered young voters.

Iloilo has the largest voting population among the region’s provinces, at 1,347,514 (52 percent), followed by Capiz at 457,382 (18 percent), Aklan 345,359 (13 percent), Antique 322,861 (13 percent), and Guimaras at 105,545 (four percent).

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CENTRAL VISAYAS

FAST FACTS (Rank among 18 regions):
Registered Voters (2016): 3.6 million (No.4)
Voter Turnout (2016): 3.08 million

The proposed Federated Region of Central Visayas will have three of the four provinces in the current Region VII: Bohol, Cebu, and Siquijor.

Central Visayas has the fourth largest voting population among the proposed federated regions, with 3,59,044 registered voters (6.60 percent of the country’s voting population) in 2016. With 3,076,789 voters who actually voted during the 2016 elections (6.99 percent of the national voters’ turnout), Central Visayas had the second highest voters’ turnout among the proposed federated regions, at 86 percent of its total number of registered voters. It tied with Eastern Visayas in the voters’ turnout rankings.

As of 2016, 1,864,797 of Central Visayas’s registered voters are female (51.9 percent of the region’s total registered voters), while 1,725,247 are male (48.1 percent).

Of the region’s registered voters, 2,941,449 are adults between ages 20 and 59 (81.9 percent of the region’s total registered voters), 500,028 are senior citizens above age 60 (13.9 percent), while 148,567 are youths between ages 17 and 19 (4.1 percent).

More than three-fourths of Central Visayas’s voting population are registered in Cebu, at 2,722,288 (76 percent). Bohol has a voting population of 798,768 (23 percent), while Siquijor has 68,988 (two percent).

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EASTERN VISAYAS

FAST FACTS (Rank among 18 regions):
Registered Voters (2016): 2.7 million (No.7)
Voter Turnout (2016): 2.31 million

Eastern Visayas will comprise the current Region VIII provinces: Eastern Samar, Northern Samar, Western Samar, Leyte, Southern Leyte, and Biliran.

Among the proposed federated regions, Eastern Visayas has the seventh largest voting population, with 2,698,880 registered voters (4.96 percent of the country’s total). With 2,312,318 voters who actually voted during the 2016 elections (5.25 percent of the national voters’ turnout), Eastern Visayas has the second highest voters’ turnout, at 86 percent of its total number of registered voters.

As of 2016 national and local elections, there are slightly more registered male voters in Eastern Visayas, at 1,360,862 (50.4 percent of the region’s total registered voters), than female registered voters, at 1,338,018 (59.6 percent).

Of the registered voters in the region, 2,153,573 are adults between ages 20 and 59 (79.8 percent of the region’s total registered voters), 397,889 are senior citizens above age 60 (14.7 percent), while 147,418 are youths between ages 17 and 19 (5.5 percent).

Eastern Visayas has the highest percentage of registered senior-citizen voters among the proposed federated regions.

Leyte has the largest voting population among the provinces in Eastern Visayas, at 1,151,497 (43 percent of the region’s registered voters), followed by Western Samar at 490,421 (18 percent), Northern Samar 386,163 (14 percent), Eastern Samar 300,818 (11 percent), Southern Leyte 261,148 (10 percent), and Biliran 108,833 (four percent).

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NEGROS ISLAND REGION

FAST FACTS (Rank among 18 regions):
Registered Voters (2016): 2.45 million (No.11)
Voter Turnout (2016): 1.86 million

The proposed Federated Region of Negros Island (NIR) will comprise the provinces of Negros Occidental (formerly of Region VI) and Negros Oriental (formerly of Region VII).

NIR was established under then President Benigno Aquino III’s Executive Order No.183 in 2015 but this was suspended by President Rodrigo Duterte’s EO No. 83 in 2016.

NIR has the eighth smallest voting population among the proposed federated regions, with 2,449,204 registered voters (4.51 percent of the country’s voting population) in 2016.

Only 1,856,003 of this number actually took to the polls in 2016, however. NIR ranked No.12 in the voters’ turnout roster, among the proposed federated regions, at just 76 percent of its registered voters.

As of 2016 national and local elections, 1,248,590 of NIR’s registered voters are female (51 percent of the region’s total registered voters), while 1,200,614 are male (49 percent).

Of NIR’s registered voters, 1,944,119 are adults between ages 20 and 59 (79.4 percent of the region’s total registered voters), 317,969 are senior citizens above age 60 (13 percent), while 187,116 are youths between ages 17 and 19 (7.6 percent).

Between the two provinces, Negros Occidental has the larger voting population, at 1,663,492 (68 percent of NIR’s total registered voters), while Negros Oriental has 785,712 (32 percent).

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ZAMBOANGA PENINSULA

FAST FACTS (Rank among 18 regions):
Registered Voters (2016): 2.0 million (No.13)
Voter Turnout (2016): 1.50 million

The proposed Federated Region of Zamboanga Peninsula will comprise the current Region IX provinces — Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, and Zamboanga Sibugay — as well as the component city of Isabela in the province of Basilan, which is presently part of ARMM.

Among the proposed federated regions, Zamboanga Peninsula has the sixth smallest voting population, with 2,000,245 registered voters (3.68 percent of the country’s total. Only 1,503,816 of its registered voters (3.41 percent of the national voters’ turnout) actually took part in the 2016 elections, however.

Zamboanga Peninsula has the lowest voters’ turnout among the proposed federated regions, at just 75 percent of its registered voters.

As of 2016, 1,003,148 of Zamboanga Peninsula’s registered voters are female (50.2 percent of the region’s total registered voters), while 997,097 are male (49.8 percent).

Of Zamboanga Peninsula’s registered voters, 1,662,841 are adults between ages 20 and 59 (83.1 percent of the region’s total registered voters), 247,214 are senior citizens above age 60 (12.4 percent), while 90,190 are youths between ages 17 and 19 (4.5 percent).

Almost half of the region’s total registered voters are in Zamboanga del Sur: 975,950. Next in number is Zamboanga del Norte at 605,146 (30 percent), Zamboanga Sibugay at 350,699 (18 percent), and the city of Isabela at 68,450 (three percent).

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NORTHERN MINDANAO

FAST FACTS (Rank among 18 regions):
Registered Voters (2016): 2.54 million (No.10)
Voter Turnout (2016): 2.11 million

The proposed Federated Region of Northern Mindanao will comprise the current Region X provinces: Bukidnon, Camiguin, Lanao del Norte, Misamis Occidental, and Misamis Oriental.

Northern Mindanao has the ninth smallest voting population among the proposed federated regions, with 2,541,331 registered voters (4.67 percent of the country’s total) in 2016. The region’s voter turnout that election year was 2,112,841, or 83 percent of its registered voters.

As of 2016, 1,284,481 of Northern Mindanao’s registered voters are female (50.5 percent of the region’s total registered voters), while 1,265,850 are male (49.5 percent).

Of Northern Mindanao’s registered voters, 2,115,044 are adults between ages 20 and 59 (83.2 percent of the region’s total registered voters),327,808 are senior citizens above age 60 (12.9 percent), while 98,479 are youths between ages 17 and 19 (3.9 percent).

Misamis Oriental has the largest voting population among the region’s provinces at 863,160 (34 percent), followed by Bukidnon at 765,898 (30 percent), Lanao del Norte 489,436 (19 percent), Misamis Occidental 365,267 (14 percent), and Camiguin 57,570 (two percent).

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DAVAO REGION

FAST FACTS (Rank among 18 regions):
Registered Voters (2016): 2.66 million (No.8)
Voter Turnout (2016): 2.16 million

The proposed Federated Region of Davao will comprise the current Region XI provinces: Compostela Valley, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, and Davao Occidental.

Among the proposed federated regions, Davao has the eighth largest voting population, with 2,659,704 registered voters (4.89 percent of the country’s total registered voters). Davao’s voter turnout that election year was 2,160,284, or 81 percent of its registered voters.

As of 2016 national and local elections, 1,345,001 of Davao’s registered voters are female (50.6 percent of the region’s total registered voters), while 1,314,703 are male (49.4 percent).

Of the region’s registered voters, 2,184,944 are adults between ages 20 and 59 (82.1 percent of the region’s total registered voters), 258,288 are senior citizens above age 60 (9.7 percent), while 216,472 are youths between ages 17 and 19 (8.1 percent).

Nearly half of Davao region’s total registered voters can be found in Davao del Sur, at 1,247,362, followed by Davao del Norte at 525,342 (20 percent), Compostela Valley 408,539 (15 percent), Davao Oriental 319,942 (12 percent), and Davao Occidental 158,519 (six percent).

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SOCCSKSARGEN

FAST FACTS (Rank among 18 regions):
Registered Voters (2016): 2.19 million (No.12)
Voter Turnout (2016): 1.74 million

The proposed Federated Region of SOCCSKSARGEN will comprise the current Region X provinces — South Cotabato, North Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, and Sarangani – along with the independent component city of Cotabato in the province of Maguindanao (presently part of ARMM).

Among the proposed federated regions, SOCCSKSARGEN has the seventh smallest voting population, with 2,189,642 registered voters (4.03 percent of the country’s total). SOCCSKSARGEN’s voter turnout in 2016 was 1,738,891, or 79 percent of its total registered voters.

As of 2016, there are slightly more registered male voters in SOCCSKSARGEN, at 1,102,724 (50.4 percent of the region’s total registered voters), than female voters, at 1,086,918 (49.6 percent).

Of the region’s registered voters, 1,880,163 are adults between ages 20 and 59 (85.9 percent of the region’s total registered voters), 240,314 are senior citizens above age 60 (11 percent), while 69,165 are youths between ages 17 and 19 (3.2 percent).

SOCCSKSARGEN has the lowest percentage of registered young voters among the proposed federated regions.

South Cotabato has the largest voting population among the SOCCSKSARGEN provinces, at 724,325 (33 percent of the region’s total), followed by North Cotabato at 669,019 (31 percent), Sultan Kudarat at 392,693 (18 percent), Sarangani at 300,075 (14 percent). Cotabato City has a voting population of 103,530 (five percent).

Federalism_Voters_CARAGA_V2_PCIJ

CARAGA

FAST FACTS (Rank among 18 regions):
Registered Voters (2016): 1.55 million (No.17)
Voter Turnout (2016): 1.32 million

The proposed Federated Region of Caraga will comprise the current Region XIII provinces: Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, and the Dinagat Islands.

Among the proposed federated regions, Caraga has the second smallest voting population, with 1,547,093 registered voters (2.85 percent of the country’s total registered voters). Caraga’s voter turnout in 2016r was 1,319,868, or 85 percent of its registered voters.

As of 2016, there are slightly more registered male voters in Caraga, at 779,567 (50.4 percent of the region’s total registered voters), than female voters, at 767,526 (49.6 percent).

Of Caraga’s registered voters, 1,269,508 are adults between ages 20 and 59 (82.1 percent of the region’s total registered voters), 204,366 are senior citizens above age 60 (13.2 percent), while 73,219 are youths between ages 17 and 19 (4.7 percent).

Registered voters in mainland Caraga are roughly divided evenly among the provinces: Agusan del Norte has the largest voting population at 411,961 (27 percent of the region’s total registered voters), followed by Agusan del Sur at 373,500 (24 percent), Surigao del Sur at 367,528 (24 percent), and Surigao del Norte at 325,053 (21 percent). Meanwhile, there are 69,051 registered voters in the Dinagat Islands (four percent).

Federalism_Voters_ARMM_V2_PCIJ

AUTONOMOUS REGION IN MUSLIM MINDANAO

FAST FACTS (Rank among 18 regions):
Registered Voters (2016): 1.69 million (No.15)
Voter Turnout (2016): 1.41 million

The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) will comprise the provinces of Basilan (excluding the city of Isabela), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao (excluding the Cotabato City), Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi.

Among the proposed federated regions, ARMM has the fourth smallest voting population, with 1,691,250 registered voters (3.11 percent of the country’s total registered voters). ARMM’s 2016 voter turnout was 1,406,422, or 83 percent of its registered voters.

As of 2016 national and local elections, there are slightly more registered male voters in ARMM, at 847,294 (50.1 percent of ARMM’s total registered voters), than female voters, at 843,956 (49.9 percent). ARMM has the smallest gender difference among the proposed federated regions.

Of ARMM’s registered voters, 1,388,828 are adults between ages 20 and 59 (82.1 percent of the region’s total registered voters), 127,052 are senior citizens above age 60 (7.5 percent), while 175,370 are youths between ages 17 and 19 (10.4 percent). ARMM has the lowest percentage of registered senior citizen voters among the proposed federated regions.

Maguindanao has the largest voting population among the provinces in ARMM, at 530,793 (31 percent of ARMM’s total registered voters), followed by Lanao del Sur at 484,435 (29 percent), Sulu at 324,543 (19 percent), Tawi-Tawi at 183,879 (11 percent), and Basilan 167,600 (10 percent).

The number for Basilan excludes Isabela City while that for Maguindanao excludes Cotabato City. — PCIJ, July 2018
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